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Surgical techniques for treating corneal trauma and injury to surrounding parts of the cornea include:

Corneoscleral & Globe Repairs

A laceration or cut is damage to the eye due to trauma. A full-thickness laceration (very deep laceration) can cut through the cornea and rupture the globe (eyeball). Corneoscleral and globe repairs involve the replacement of contents extruded from inside the eye, closing the laceration or tear in the cornea and sclera (white part of the eye), removing foreign bodies from the eye, and restoring the original anatomy of the eye. The procedure is conducted under anesthesia. The globe can be sutured before exploring the wound if the globe is unstable. Cataract (clouding of the lens) caused due to trauma can also be treated during the repair. The procedure will end by injecting antibiotics into the vitreous, suturing the conjunctiva (scleral covering) and applying an eye patch.

Perforation Repairs

Corneal perforations (rupture) of 1-2 mm or less can be treated with tissue adhesives. Corneal glue can retain the structure of the globe while it heals and so penetrative surgical procedures can be avoided. However, larger corneal perforations are treated with penetrating keratoplasty (full-thickness corneal transplant). Your surgeon will replace the damaged cornea with healthy donor tissue and suture the transplanted cornea in place.

Lid Laceration Repairs

Your surgeon will administer anesthesia and clean the wound by irrigating it with saline solution to remove foreign bodies present in your eye. Injury to the lid margin and canthus (point where the eyelids meet) will be repaired. Your surgeon will align the lid margins and repair the laceration with the help of sutures. After the surgery, the antibiotic and steroidal ointment may be applied to prevent infection and provide pain relief. A transparent eye shield may be placed to protect the treated eye. Early repair of lid lacerations facilitates less edema and better protection of the corneal tissue.

Phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK)

Superficial corneal disorders can be effectively treated with PTK. In this procedure, the surgeon will remove the top layer of your cornea (epithelium) and use the excimer laser to treat the cornea. This type of laser removes tiny, precise amounts of the scar tissue and smoothens the corneal surface to improve vision. It also helps in reshaping the cornea. Following the procedure, antibiotic eye drops may be instilled to prevent infections and a bandage lens placed on your eye for protection. PTK has the benefit of providing permanent results.

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